Substances, Mixtures, and Solutions

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Something that can't be broken down into simpler parts and physical changes that won't alter its composition is called a substance.
A substance is made of a single compound.

Example: Water (H2O) - Water is a substance. Water will remain H2O no matter what physical process we put water through (Freezing or boiling).
Different substances mixed together and with no possibility to be chemically bonded are called a mixture.

Example: Salad - A salad is a mixture of different things like oil, herbs, and lemon juice.
There are two kinds of mixtures: Heterogeneous mixture and Homogenous mixture.
A mixture that the substances do not evenly mix called a heterogeneous mixture

Example - Salad - No matter how many times you mix the salad, every bit of salads different.
A mixture that the molecules of each substance are equally mixed and that we can't see the different parts of the mixture is called homogenous mixture.

Example - Suger dissolves in water and creates a homogenous mixture that we can't see the sugar and the water. It is just a liquid that mixed both molecules.
Homogenous mixtures are also called solutions.
A solution is made of solute and a solvent.
A solution is made of solute and a solvent.
Solute: The substance that gets dissolved is called the solute.
Solvent: The substance that dissolves the solute called the solvent.

Example: When making a cup of tea, milk, coffee and sugar are solutes, and water is solvent.
Solubility is the ability of a substance to dissolve in another substance.
Temperature, gas, pressure, and concentration affect solubility.
Temperature, gas, pressure, and concentration affect solubility.

Example: Solid solutes are more soluble in water at higher temperatures. (Suger easily dissolves in hot water.)
Gases are more soluble in liquid at colder temperatures.

Example: Carbonated beverages remain fizzy longer when they are cold.
Concentration is the amount of solute contained in a solution.
A concentrated solution has a lot of solutes. The diluted solution has very little solute

Example: Concentrated lemon drink solution would be really sour and sweet, and a diluted solution would taste watery.
The side of a fruit juice box will usually tell us the concentration of fruit juice. If the concentration of fruit in a fruit punch is 7 percent, that means 7 percent of the drink is made of juice, and the rest is stuff like water and sugar.

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